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The entire donation process takes about an hour. Testing — Your blood is tested and sent to a patient in need. Learn more about what happens to donated blood. Many people are reluctant to make their first blood donation, but once they do, they find the donation process to be easy and gratifying. Select a donation type and find a time that works for you. Eat iron-rich foods , such as red meat, fish, poultry, spinach, etc.
Please bring your donor card, driver's license or two other forms of identification. Drink an extra 16 oz. Travel, medications and other factors may affect your eligibility. Check in advance. Bring your favorite music or a friend to relax and enjoy the donation experience. Common Concerns. First Time Donors. Whatever your reason, the need for blood is constant and you will feel good knowing your donation can help save up to 3 lives.
Why Give Blood. You don't need a special reason to give blood. You just need your own reason. Some of us give blood because we were asked by a friend. Some know that a family member or a friend might need blood some day. Some believe it is the right thing to do. A presumed consent system addresses this preference for silence; but the voluntary communitarian basis of this system must be well-publicised and accepted within society. Investments in trained transplant coordinators, and dissemination of trustworthy information on organ donation risks should be undertaken by hospitals providing transplant services.
Uncertainty about the ethics of, and protocols for, communication with families about organ donation after brain death. Once decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment have been independently taken, transparent and well-validated protocols for commencing organ preservation procedures and treatments should be explained to families. The ethical basis of donation after cardiac death is the presumed consent of patients who have not opted out of organ donation.
The ethical basis of commencing organ preservation procedures and treatments must lie in reasonable professional certainty that these are not harmful to the patient.
First Time Donors
Its legal basis is provided under the HOTA. Transplant teams should be sensitive to the needs of family members in bereavement, and should develop protocols such as time-limited stays on organ retrieval that reflect consideration towards families. Skilled counsellors should help families to potentially seek solace in the beneficent act of organ donation. Transplant coordinators should be careful not to rely on stereotypes and assumptions about religious and cultural traditions, and how individuals bring such considerations into organ donation and other decisions.
The reasons for low organ procurement rates from cadaveric and living sources in Singapore are also well-documented. Transplant teams report several clinical and ethical challenges in donor identification, donor referrals, and donor actualisation 3.
This consideration of familial bereavement, however, differs from the process of informed consent, which, as part of HOTA, happens at the age of 21 when the person receives a packet with information on the Act and necessary forms for opting-out. Persons who do not register an objection to removal of organs under the HOTA are presumed to have consented to organ donation on an informed basis.
Families although lacking a legal right to stop the retrieval of organs, are appropriately given due concern for their bereavement. Table 3 summarises the reasons for low organ procurement rates in Singapore, as reported in the literature, and ethical and practical issues to be addressed among stakeholders in future efforts to improve donation rates.
The history of organ transplantation in Singapore and the procurement of organs for transplantation are ethically sensitive issues. This review has focused on low organ procurement rates in Singapore over the years, and on the analysis of reasons that has become available in the literature on this subject. Writers have been equally prolific in recommending strategies for improving the organ donation record in Singapore, and expressing perspectives on the ethics of different approaches 1 , 3 , While the enactment of a presumed consent law in was momentous and led many in the transplant community to think that progress in transplantation was inevitable, the reality as we now know has been less encouraging.
The present consensus appears to be that legislation alone is not enough to raise organ donation to higher levels to meet the needs of patients with end-stage organ failure, a problem that has reached unprecedented levels in Singapore. Transplant professionals have pressed for better practical strategies to address the areas of personal motivation of donors, eg the willingness of younger Singaporeans to make living donations to intimates but not strangers, and the willingness of the elderly to donate to strangers 11 ; the changes in cultural and religious beliefs in an increasingly literate population; investing in physician training to improve donor identification, referral, and actualisation rates in all hospitals 3 ; improving the organ donation experience for patients by enhancing trust in medical professionals and addressing misplaced fears concerning the medical risks of donation.
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Email this article. Email the author. Post a Comment. These legislative changes were undertaken gradually over time with intent to both expand the supply of transplantable organs, and to ensure that organ donors are not exploited, unlawfully induced or forced into organ retrieval by others. HOTA Under a new opt-out system, individuals are presumed to have consented to organ donation upon death. HOTA Amendment The Act was amended to permit retrieval of other types of organs besides kidneys livers, hearts, and corneas , and all causes of death rather than only death by accidental causes.
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HOTA Amendment The Act was amended to remove the upper age limit of 60 years for deceased donations to allow transplantable organs to be assessed for medical suitability. Paired exchanges permitted. Table 3 : Improving the organ donation experience: proposals from the literature Reasons for low procurement among stakeholders Proposals Individuals 1.
Fear of death or apathy lead to individual failure to pledge organs, or express preferences about organ donation 2. Fear of surgical risks and risks to health and employment 3. Professionals 4. Uncertainty about the ethics of, and protocols for, determining brain death 5. Uncertainty about the ethics of, and protocols for, communication with families about organ donation after brain death 6. Families 7.
Cultural and religious beliefs 9. Reasons for low organ procurement rates The reasons for low organ procurement rates from cadaveric and living sources in Singapore are also well-documented. The concept of brain death remains an ethically ambivalent issue, and closely tied to the need to clarify the conditions under which organs may be legitimately retrieved from the deceased for transplantation Continued reliance on identifying potential donors from brain dead heart-beating patients only, and leaving out the much larger numbers who could be identified for donation after cardiac death on the presumption that the organs retrieved from this source are of poorer quality 3.
At the same time, protocols for instituting organ preservation techniques and controlled cardiac death are still regarded as controversial Continued reluctance to deploy extended criteria for donation, such as organs from deceased donors with clinical risk factors, on the assumption of poorer outcomes compared to transplantation using organs that meet the standard criteria When grieving family members object to organ retrieval by presumed consent to donation, in the face of uncertainty about the wishes of the deceased, doctors have been reluctant to press the issue Besides the fear of the risks of surgery, risks to health and other individual factors 11 , family pressures weigh on the organ donation decision for both potential donor and potential recipient.
Such decisions can be so pressurising on families as to sever long-standing ties when potential donors keep silent or disappear, and potential recipients feel abandoned or betrayed Sometimes, objections are raised by in-laws and other relatives 1. Conclusion The history of organ transplantation in Singapore and the procurement of organs for transplantation are ethically sensitive issues. Note 1 Another source places the figure at an even lower number of 51 kidney transplants in References Prabhakar KS. Cadaveric and living organ donation. Natural limitations. Possible solutions.
Singapore experience. Ann Transplant. Ministry of Health, Singapore. Singapore: MoH; , updated Nov [cited Jun 2]. The transplantable organ shortage in Singapore: has implementation of presumed consent to organ donation made a difference? Ann Acad Med Singapore. Johnson EJ, Goldstein D. Do defaults save lives? Vathsala A. Twenty-five facts about kidney disease in Singapore: in remembrance of World Kidney Day.
Soh P, Lim SM. Impact of the opting-out system on kidney procurement in Singapore. Transplant Proc. Organ procurement in Singapore.