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To be the device and registration of justifiable mathematics in scenario, it is Managerial to be the gullible books service; most not anyone opinion thoughts safety; of open bodily site-specific message word teachings. Monomoraic monosyllabic words either have a high-register H or a low-register tone L. During the tonogenesis process, it developed into second-syllable high tone. Gong argues that this high tone is not only realized on disyllabic words but also on monosyllabic ones.
Thus, he proposes an automatic rule of H tone assignment to the last mora for monosyllabic 7 It is important to point out that this stress pattern is only relevant to the non-verb word. Sun, , p.
Gong also claims that all words in Tibetan languages LT included have a prosodic word structure. The prosodic word has two components: a maximally disyllabic prosodic core and an optional prosodic appendix. Figure 2. The prosodic ap- pendix, however, is toneless and unstressed. All the syllables that are not included in the prosodic core are annexed to the prosodic appendix. Gong calls this a push- out efect. HH] [HH. Therefore, the underlying H tone is not realized and the word receives a default low tone.
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The tonic suixes bear an H tone. It is realized as high-level pitch contour and neutralizes the falling pitch contour on the preceding syllable. Furthermore, tonic suixes are included in the prosodic core if a position is available.
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The atonic suixes, on the other hand, bear a L tone and are always assigned to the prosodic appendix. H] [LML. The tonal status of suixes is irrelevant in polysyllabic words. Lim, , Stress is preserved in the archaic non-tonal Tibetan languages, but there is still uncertainty about the existence or functional load of stress in the innova- tive tonal Tibetan languages.
The presence of stress can inevitably complicate the analysis of tonal and intonational phonology in these languages. There are claims that there is a stress-like system in LT, but these claims have not been suiciently investigated to reach a consensus Denwood, ; Odden, ; Tournadre and Dorje, Meredith proposes a Stressability Hierarchy in which stress is phonologically assigned to heavy syllables.
If there are two equally heavy syllables in a word, tone determines stress placement: syllables with high tone are preferred. If there is still a tie, the leftmost syllable in a word is stressed. Although stress is not the main research focus of this dissertation, I will present results from some of my preliminary instrumental in- vestigations into LT stress in Chapter 3 and discuss their implication in analyzing the tonal and intonational phonology of LT.
Some analyses also invoke the notion of stress to explain the systematic pres- ence of a H tone on the second syllable of disyllables Monich, ; Gong, They essentially reanalyze the modern relexes of what was most probably stress at an earlier stage of the language Caplow, as a non-typical form of syn- chronic stress. In Chapters 3 and 4, I will argue that it is unnecessary to analyze this H tone as a stress marker. There is relatively little research in this area. I will irst provide a concise overview of prosodic structure, which plays an important role in the word tonology of LT.
Then, I will present a brief discussion of Autosegmental Metrical Theory, since this is the main framework of intonational phonology used in this dissertation. In this section, I will briely review the theoretical literature on prosodic domains deined by the mor- phosyntax. This is crucial because, as we will see in the rest of the thesis, prosodic constituency afects both LT lexical tone and intonational targets. Researchers such as Selkirk and Nespor and Vogel have postu- lated that the interaction between phonology and morpho-syntax supports a hier- archical model of prosodic constituents.
These constituents form a hierarchical structure, where larger constituents dominate the smaller constituents as shown in Figure 2. There is a strong tendency to maintain the correspondence between syntactic and prosodic constituency cross-linguistically. This correspondence of syntactic- prosodic constituency is captured by a set of universal Match constraints out- lined in Match Theory Selkirk, As a result, some languages exhibit characteristics of recursivity and level-skipping. According to Ito and Mester , these constituents can be further divided into two main classes: the interface categories and the rhythmic categories.
The in- terface categories are comprised of syntactic constituents phonological utterance, intonational phrase, phonological phrase, clitic group, phonological word. They are usually deined by the phonological interaction between morphosyntax and phonological constituents. The phonological utterance is the largest constituent in the prosodic hierarchy, and it is related to the syntactic sentence.
This corre- sponds to the top node Xn that dominates the rest of the syntactic tree Nespor and Vogel, , p. This prosodic category type, however, is not posited in the prosodic hierarchy of LT in my own proposal. Phonological phrases are related to syntactic phrases.
Typical syntactic phrases include noun phrases, verb phrases, and adjective phrases.
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This is because clitics are usually either associated with a phonological phrase as an independent word, or aixed to a phonological word Nespor and Vogel, , p. Phonological words also known as Prosodic words are usually considered as constituents that occupy the terminal node of a syntactic tree. They are syntactically related to in- dividual stems, stems of a compound word, and aixes Nespor and Vogel, , p. The rhythmic categories are comprised of sub-prosodic word constituents foot, syllable, mora , and refer to morphology.
They are deined by their intrinsic pho- netic characteristics and prominence patterns. The foot is the domain of stress and normally groups stressed and unstressed syllables Hayes, The syllable is probably the most common prosodic unit crosslinguistically.
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It is a common tone and accent bearing unit across languages. The mora is the smallest prosodic constituent and has no direct morphosyntactic counterpart. It is usually used to phonologically represent the weight or duration of a syllable. It is also a tone or accent bearing unit in some languages. LT appears to follow the strict layer hypothesis Selkirk, ; Nespor and Vogel, In spontaneous speech, it shows no evidence of prosodic recursion or of non-exhaustive parsing.
I propose that it is a Prosodic Word Group PWG , an independent domain, distinct from the clitic group9 and located below the phonological phrase, that consists of several prosodic words. In addition, the boundary of the prosodic word group coincides with the word boundary of the polysyllabic word. Ladd , p.
He distinguishes two approaches to intonational research in ear- lier studies: impressionistic or proto-phonological, and instrumental or phonetic. While these two camps had diferent theoretical approaches, they are not neces- It is one of the most contentious constituents in original models of the Prosodic Hierarchy cf.
Linearity of tonal structure The pitch contour of an utterance consists of a sequence speciied local event, associated with speciic points of the segmental stream. The con- nection between the local events is termed as transition and it is phono- logically unspeciied. The most important local event is pitch accents, which are often associated with prominent segments. The edge tones or boundary tones indicate the onset and ofset of an utterance. Distinction between pitch accent and stress First and foremost, pitch accent is an intonational feature associated with speciic syllables according to the intonational structure of a given language.